Precalculus: Graphical, Numerical, Algebraic

The Rule of Four—A Balanced Approach

A principal feature of Precalculus: Graphical, Numerical, Algebraic is the balance among the algebraic, numerical, graphical, and verbal methods of representing problems: the rule of four. For instance, we obtain solutions algebraically when that is the most appropriate technique to use, and we obtain solutions graphically or numerically when algebra is difficult to use. We urge students to solve problems by one method and then to support or confirm their solutions by using another method. We believe that students must learn the value of each of these methods or representations and must learn to choose the one most appropriate for solving the particular problem under consideration. This approach reinforces the idea that to understand a problem fully, students need to understand it algebraically as well as graphically and numerically.


12 Basic Functions

Twelve basic functions are emphasized throughout the text as a major theme and focus.

These functions are:

  • The Identity Function
  • The Squaring Function
  • The Cubing Function
  • The Reciprocal Function
  • The Square Root Function
  • The Exponential Function
  • The Natural Logarithm Function
  • The Sine Function
  • The Cosine Function
  • The Absolute Value Function
  • The Greatest Integer Function
  • The Logistic Function

One of the most distinctive features of this text is that it introduces students to the full vocabulary of functions early in the course. Students meet the twelve basic functions graphically in Chapter 1 and are able to compare and contrast them as they learn about concepts like domain, range, symmetry, continuity, end behavior, asymptotes, extrema, and even periodicity—concepts that are difficult to appreciate when the only examples a teacher can refer to are polynomials. With this text, students are able to characterize functions by their behavior within the first month of classes. Once students have a comfortable understanding of functions in general, the rest of the course consists of studying the various types of functions in greater depth, particularly with respect to their algebraic properties and modeling applications.

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MathXL® tablet

MathXL being shown on a tablet displaying The Cosine Function


Looking Ahead to Calculus

The Looking Ahead to Calculus icon is found throughout the text next to many examples and topics to point out concepts that students will encounter again in calculus. Ideas that foreshadow calculus, such as limits, maximum and minimum, asymptotes, and continuity, are highlighted. Some calculus notation and language are introduced in the early chapters and used throughout the text to establish familiarity.

convergence of geometric series displayed on a laptop screen


Graphs of sine and cosine: sinusoids on a tablet

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Discipline: AP® Honors & Electives, Mathematics

Copyright: 2019

Grade(s): 11 - 12

Program Type: Core

Delivery Method: Blended (Print & Digital)

Device: Computer

Operating System: Windows, Mac OS

Funding Sources: ESSER

Demana, Precalculus: Graphical, Numerical, Algebraic, 10th Edition

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